Today is the birthday of American writer Norman Mailer (1923-2007). Born in New Jersey, Mailer graduated from Harvard in 1944 and then served in the Phillipines during World War II. After the war, Mailer published a semi-autobiographical novel called The Naked and the Dead. Based on his experiences in the war, The Naked and the Dead was incredibly successful, and brought Mailer fame at just 25 years of age.
Writing in his 1973 biography of Marilyn Monroe, Mailer coined the word “factoid,” a word that has taken on a number of interesting usages in the past few years. In his biography of Monroe, Mailer defined factoids as “ . . . facts which have no existence before appearing in a magazine or newspaper . . . .” In its original sense, a factoid was not, as some believe, “a small fact”; rather, a factoid was an untruth that was stated as if it were an actual fact and was repeated so many times that many believed it to be true. A classic example would be the often stated belief that the Great Wall of China is visible from space.
It’s appropriate that Mailer would coin the word, considering the fact that his writing often blurred the lines between fiction and journalism. For example, Mailer won the Pulitzer Prize in 1979 for his novel The Executioner’s Song, a book that he called a “true life novel,” and which is based on the actual events surrounding the execution of Gary Gilmore for murder by the state of Utah in 1967.
Because so many people have mistakenly mixed up the meaning of the words fact and factoid for so long, factoid has recently taken on another, opposite meaning to Mailer’s original definition. Today when people use the word, they mean “a trivial or fascinating fact.” So, we can sum up the interesting history of this word by saying the word that originally meant “a fake fact” has evolved to mean “an interesting fact.”
As a result of the history of the word’s usage, lexicographers would call factoid a contranym — a word that has two opposite definitions, as in the word “dust,” which can mean “to add fine particles” or “to remove fine particles.” These words are sometimes also called “Janus words,” based on Janus, the two-faced Roman god of beginnings, gateways, and doorways (See January 1: Exordium Day). Other examples of contranyms are apology, bolt, finished, handicap, trip, and weather.
Today’s Challenge: Factlet or Factoid?
To clarify the often confusing and contradictory definitions of factoid, columnist William Safire suggested a new word be added to the English lexicon: factlet, meaning “a small, arcane fact.” By adopting factlet, writers would help readers differentiate between the two meanings of factoid. How do you determine whether something is true or false? When you’re reading, how do you determine whether something is fact or fiction? Using a recent newspaper or magazine, gather five interesting factual details based on a variety of different articles; try for factlets – small, arcane facts. Once you have a list of at least five factlets with citations, use your imagination to create five factoids, that is some details that sound plausible but that are made up. Finally, select a random item from your list of ten, and read it to a friend to see if they can tell the factlets from the factoids.
Quotation of the Day: Truth is stranger than fiction, but it is because fiction is obliged to stick to possibilities. Truth isn’t. -Mark Twain