Today is the anniversary of an article published in the show-business magazine Variety that featured a new word. The article published on August 13, 1950, used the term disc jockey for the first time, reporting the phenomenon of New York radio hosts selecting and playing phonograph records for an eager audience of young fans of popular music. The term stuck, sometimes abbreviated as DJ or deejay. DJ is an example of an Americanism, an English word or expression that is born in the U.S.A. and that is used in the writing and speech of Americans.
The book America in So Many Words by David K. Barnhart and Allan A. Metcalf documents Americanisms from the 1600s to the end of the 20th century. For each year, the authors select a single representative Americanism that was “newly coined or newly prominent.” Looking at the words and the background of each is a reminder that every English word is like a fossil or an archeological artifact that reveals the attitudes and trends of the age in which it was coined.
The below list of Americanisms from 1949 to 1960, for example, gives interesting insights into the characteristics of post-war America; the list also foreshadows several political, cultural, social, and economic trends that would emerge in the second half of the 20th century.
1951 rock and roll
1954 Fast Food
1957 role model
1958 Murphy’s Law
1960 sit-in (1)
If English is the global language of the 21st century, then it is certainly American English which is the most influential variety of English. Whereas the English language of the British Empire dominated and propagated English around the world in the first half of the 20th century, American English, since the end of World War II, has exported English even farther than the Brits, via satellite and computer technology.
As early as 1780, John Adams envisioned this linguistic American Revolution:
English is destined to be in the next and succeeding centuries more generally the language of the world than Latin was in the last or French is in the present age. The reason of this is obvious, because the increasing population in America, and their universal connection and correspondence with all nations will, aided by the influence of England in the world, whether great or small, force their language into general use.
One aspect that characterizes the American variety of English is its brevity. Americanisms are typically single-syllable words or at least single syllable compounds. Americanisms include a variety of classifications that produce words that are short and sweet: Americanisms are clipped words (such as fan from fanatic), blends(such as motel from motor + hotel), abbreviations (such as Ms. from mistress), initialisms (such as UFO from Unidentified Flying Object), and acronyms (such as AWOL from absent without leave).
In fact, even the word acronym is an Americanism that emerged from the government and military build-up of World War II to give Americans a way to compress multiple-word expressions into easy-to-communicate small packages. This Americanism uses Greek roots: acro- meaning top, peak, or initial and -nym meaning name. Using the initial letters of words, acronyms condense names, titles, or phrases into single words, such as radar for radio detection and ranging.
Born in the U.S.A.
Given the number of letters and a brief definition, see if you can identify the Americanisms below. None are more than four letters long:
- Three-letter word in response to someone stating to obvious.
- A three-letter clipped word that emerged from rap music and its performers’ desire for respect.
- Two-letter initialism that reflects the American faith in the ability to measure anything, including the quality of a person’s gray matter.
- A three-letter clipped word that refers to any liquid, especially a sticky one.
- A frequently used two-letter initialism with two different meanings. The first came out of the world of technology; the second meaning came out of the multicultural movement.
- A two-letter initialism that refers to American soldiers.
- A four-letter acronym that evolved from the Civil War to refer to soldiers who fled the battlefield or their assigned posts.
- A three-letter initialism that reflects the American tendency to live life at a fast pace and to get things done in a hurry.
Today’s Challenge: Yankee Doodle Lexicon
Based on your best guesses, what are some examples of words or expressions that are Americanisms, words or expressions that emerged from American English and the culture and history of the United States? Select a single word or phrase, and do some research to verify whether or not it is an Americanism. Once you have identified one, do some research to determine the etymology of the word or phrase. Write an extended definition of the word that includes its definition, evolution, and history. (Common Core Writing 2)
The following are some examples:
Quote of the Day: Thus the American, on his linguistic side, likes to make his language as he goes along, and not all the hard work of his grammar teachers can hold the business back. A novelty loses nothing by the fact that it is a novelty; it rather gains something, and particularly if it meets the national fancy for the terse, the vivid, and, above all, the bold and imaginative. —H. L. Mencken
- duh (1963) 2. dis (1986) 3. IQ (1916) [intelligence quotient] 4. goo (1902) 5. PC (1990) [personal computer; politically correct] 6. GI (1917) [See Word Daze June 22 GI Day 7. AWOL [absent without leave] (1863) 8. P.D.Q [Pretty Darn Quick] (1875)
1- Barnhart, David K. and Alla A. Metcalf. America in So Many Words: Words That Have Shaped America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1997.
2 – Algeo, John. “Americans are Ruining English.” Language Myth #21. Do You Speak American? PBS.