Today is the birthday of British journalist, essayist, and novelist George Orwell (1903-1950). His birth name was Eric Arthur Blair, and he was born in Motihari, India, where his father was serving as an official in the British colonial government. Orwell left India to get his education in British schools, but he returned to Asia in 1922 to work with the Indian Imperial Police in Burma. He decided to devote himself to writing full time in 1928, and in 1933 he published his first novel Down and Out in Paris and London under his pen name, George Orwell.
Orwell’s best known and most widely read novels are Animal Farm and 1984. Both novels are potent warnings against big government, totalitarianism, and fascism.
In Animal Farm, a political allegory, Mr. Jones’ animals take over his farm, and in events that parallel the Russian Revolution, they learn that “All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.”
Nineteen Eighty-Four tells the story of a future dystopia called Oceania. The one-party government is in a perpetual state of war and is led by the all-seeing but unseen leader called Big Brother. From the very beginning of the book, the novel’s main character, a party worker named Winston Smith, is doing something that is both radical and unlawful: he is questioning his government, and he is writing his thoughts in a journal.
Orwell wrote 1984 in 1948 (reversing the numbers 4 and 8), but he probably should have called it 2084 since questions about big government, privacy, and the role of technology make this novel even more relevant in the 21st century than it was in the 20th.
Two words created by Orwell in 1984, doublethink and newspeak have been melded in our modern lexicon to become doublespeak, meaning language that is deliberately constructed to disguise rather than clarify meaning. William Lunz, author of the 1989 book Doublespeak, keeps Orwell’s memory alive in his annual Doublespeak Awards, which call attention to language from government, business, and the military that is “grossly deceptive, evasive and euphemistic.” (See December 12: Doublespeak Day)
Orwell’s use of the suffix -speak in 1984, for words such as newspeak, duckspeak, and oldspeak, popularized the use of the suffix -speak to refer to any specific variety of spoken English, such as Haigspeak, Bushspeak, or soccer-speak.
The 1946 essay Politics and the English Language is George Orwell’s plea for writing that is clear, concise, and thoughtful. In a famous example, he presents the following passage from Ecclesiastes as a model of clarity:
I returned and saw under the sun, that the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favour to men of skill; but time and chance happeneth to them all.
He then translates the passage into modern gobbledygook:
Objective considerations of contemporary phenomena compel the conclusion that success or failure in competitive activities exhibits no tendency to be commensurate with innate capacity, but that a considerable element of the unpredictable must invariably be taken into account.
Also in Politics and the English Language, Orwell practices what he preaches when he presents the following concise list of rules for writers:
- Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print.
- Never use a long word where a short one will do.
- If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.
- Never use the passive [voice] where you can use the active.
- Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent.
- Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous. (2)
In order to elaborate on his first rule, Orwell discusses dead metaphors, which are figures of speech that once evoked images, but because they have been used and recycled so often by writers, they have lost their luster. Today the most common term for a trite and overused figure of speech is cliche. Orwell’s goal is to get writers to eschew cliches and instead create fresh figures of speech that will bring their writing to life.
In the following 170 words, Orwell explains the writing process meticulously, showing how fresh figures bridge the gap between the abstract and the concrete and how good writing must be intentional and thoughtful:
When you think of a concrete object, you think wordlessly, and then, if you want to describe the thing you have been visualising you probably hunt about until you find the exact words that seem to fit it. When you think of something abstract you are more inclined to use words from the start, and unless you make a conscious effort to prevent it, the existing dialect will come rushing in and do the job for you, at the expense of blurring or even changing your meaning. Probably it is better to put off using words as long as possible and get one’s meaning as clear as one can through pictures and sensations. Afterward one can choose — not simply accept — the phrases that will best cover the meaning, and then switch round and decide what impressions one’s words are likely to make on another person. This last effort of the mind cuts out all stale or mixed images, all prefabricated phrases, needless repetitions, and humbug and vagueness generally.
Today’s Challenge: I See Dead Metaphors
What are some examples of dead metaphors that you might read in the writing of others or use in your own writing? A dead metaphor is a word or expression that once evoked a visual image, but because it has been used and recycled so much and for so long, it is now just an ordinary word, evoking meaning but no specific imagery. For example, people today use the expression “a red letter day” to mean a day that is special or especially memorable. Few people realize, however, that the expression evolved from an age-old practice of using red to mark holy days on church calendars.
The words and expressions below are additional dead metaphors. Each one has a dictionary definition, but also a backstory that originally evoked imagery as well as meaning. Investigate the backstory of at least two dead metaphors. Identify what the words mean today, but also tell the words’ backstories so that your reader can add a picture along with the words’ meanings.
aftermath, bedlam, canard, decimate, eavesdrop, feet of clay, gadfly, honeymoon, iconoclast, jeopardy, know the ropes, labyrinth, mercurial, nitpick, ostracize, procrustean, quixotic, red herring, scapegoat, shibboleth, sour grapes, tantalize, Uncle Tom, vandal, white elephant, yahoo, zealot
(Common Core Language 4 – Knowledge of Language)
Quotation of the Day: Effective metaphor does more than shed light on the two things being compared. It actually brings to the mind’s eye something that has never before been seen. It’s not just the marriage ceremony linking two things; it’s the child born from the union. An original and imaginative metaphor brings something fresh into the world. -Rebecca McClanahan
1 – Lunz, William. Doublespeak. New York: Random House, 1989.
2 – Orwell, George. Politics and the English Language. http://www.orwell.ru/library/essays/politics/english/e_polit/