On his day in 1989, the film Field Of Dreams made its debut in American theaters. The film stars Kevin Costner as a farmer who hears voices in his cornfield imploring him to build a baseball field. The film is an adaptation of a magical realist novel, Shoeless Joe by Canadian author W. P. Kinsella. The book and film form the perfect mix of sentimental themes of fantasy, baseball, and family.
The most memorable line of the film — a line which has become one of the most memorable movie lines of all time — comes from the voice that Costner’s character, Ray Kinsella, hears in his cornfield. The voice says, “If you build it, he will come.”
This line, along with the film’s tagline “If you believe the impossible, the incredible can come true,” are textbook examples of complex sentences.
Unlike a simple sentence, which features a single independent clause, or a compound sentence that features two independent clauses, a complex sentence features an independent clause and at least one dependent clause (also known as a subordinate clause).
For example, the line that farmer Kinsella hears in his cornfield begins with a dependent clause, a clause that cannot stand alone:
If you build it
To complete the sentence, and to make it a complete complex sentence, the independent clause is added at the end.
If you build it, he will come.
Complex sentences are an essential element of any effective writer’s repertoire because they not only provide sentence variety, but they also combine ideas logically, showing a reader the relationship between two ideas. For example, notice the differences between the sentences below:
Because he loves baseball, Bill plays every day.
Although he loves baseball, Bill plays tennis in the spring.
After he plays baseball, Bill always cleans his cleats.
If Bill’s team wins their baseball game, they will be in the playoffs.
Each of the sentences is complex, beginning with a dependent clause; however, in each sentence, the logical relationship between the clauses is different. In the first, the relationship is cause and effect; in the second, it’s contrast; in the third, it’s time; and in the fourth, it’s conditional.
The words that single the relationship and that make the clauses dependent are called subordinating conjunctions.
Read the examples below to see the different ways that subordinating conjunctions connect ideas:
Cause and Effect (or Reasons): because, since, so that
Because he loves to read, Bill is always carrying a book.
Contrast (or Concession): although, even though, though, while, whereas
Although he loves to write, Bill’s favorite pastime is reading.
Time: before, after, as, once, since, while, when, whenever
After Bill gets home from school, he sits down and reads the newspaper.
Condition: if, once, unless
If Bill gets money for his birthday, he plans to buy some new books.
Use the mnemonic “A WHITE BUS” to remember the major subordinate conjunctions:
A White Bus
After, although, as
WHen, which, who, where, while
If, in order that
Since, so that
Today’s Challenge: If You Make a Parallel Product Pitch, It Will Sell
What are some products that you would personally endorse? Imagine you work for an advertising agency. Brainstorm some possible products that you might try to sell with a strong sales pitch. Select one specific product, and construct a topic sentence for a 60-second sales pitch that features three parallel dependent clauses. Notice, for example, how the following two topic sentences each feature parallel dependent clauses:
If you want the best value, if you want the highest quality, and if you want the best tasting cheese, buy Johnson’s Cheddar.
Boston Bacon is the best because it melts in your mouth, because it’s low fat, and because it goes well with any meal.
Writing three-pronged parallel complex sentence like these is a great skill to practice for effective writing. These sentences can be used as a thesis statement for an essay, or as a concluding sentence for a paragraph or essay. Notice that in the two example sentences above, the three parallel dependent clauses may come before or after the independent clause.
Once you have constructed your topic sentence, write the rest of your pitch by elaborating on the points in your topic sentence. (Common Core Writing 1 – Argument)
Quotation of the Day: If it sounds like writing, I rewrite it. -Elmore Leonard