On this date in 1811, Governor Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts signed a bill that readjusted the political map of Massachusetts. The new map was redrawn to favor the incumbent Democratic-Republican Party and weaken the electoral prospects of the Federalist party.
Under normal circumstances Gerry’s action might have become a lost footnote in history; however, due to a brief conversation between a Boston newspaper editor and an artist, a new word was born.
After the bill was passed, Gilbert Stuart, a political cartoonist for the Boston Gazette, was looking at a map of the new Essex County voting district. Struck by the district’s convoluted contours he took out his pencil and added a few lines, including a head, wings, and claws. He then turned to Benjamin Russell, the paper’s editor, and said, “There, that will do for a Salamander.” Russell responded with a pun, “Salamander? Call it a Gerrymander!” At that moment a new word and new political epithet was born.
On March 26, 1812 the word went public when Stuart used “Gerry-mander” as the title for his cartoon drawing of the redrawn boundaries of the voting district.
Ever since Governor Gerry has been the namesake of this notorious political practice by which incumbent politicians and political parties attempt to maintain power. It should be noted, however, that the historical record of Elbridge Gerry is not entirely tainted. He was an original signer of both the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation. He also became the 5th Vice President of the United States in 1813, serving under President James Madison (1).
Gerrymander is just one example of the deep, layered meaning found in the language of politics. With political words it is especially important to remember that to understand words we need to go beyond just their denotations – their dictionary definitions. Instead, we need to consider their connotations – the feelings, associations, and emotions that words evoke.
The following collection of words is just a small A to Z sample of words that have distinctive meaning when used in political contexts:
activist, bipartisan, carpetbagger, demagogue, entitlement, fascist, grassroots, hegemony, ideology, jingoism, kingmaker, lobby, mainstream, NIMBY, oversight, progressive, quagmire, reform, spin, terrorism, unilateral, veto, whistleblower, extremist, yahoo, zinger
Today’s Challenge: The Words of Political Prose and Politics
What are some English words that you would categorize as distinctly political words – that is words that are associated with government and power? Brainstorm a list of political words. Take one word that you find interesting, and research that word’s etymology, its meaning, and some historical examples of how it has been used as well as how it might be used today. Write a report including all of your findings. Your mission is to help the reader understand the word’s denotation as well as its connotations.
(Common Core Writing 2 – Expository)
Quotation of the Day: Political language . . . is designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to give an appearance of solidity to pure wind. -George Orwell in Politics and the English Language
1-Safire, William. Safire’s Political Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2008: 275-6.